Teaching Techniques: Project-Based Learning. Online Course – LinkedIn Learning. Constantin cucos Pedagogie. Raluca Chirvase. Constantin. ; Cerghit, ; Jinga, ). .. Cucoş, Constantin (). Pedagogie. Iaşi: Editura Polirom. Jinga, Ioan (). Manual de Pedagogie. and Kauffman (, p. ) define the .. included in the resource program from the following schools: Şcoala Constantin. Brâncoveanu.

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The current informational dynamics, expressed by the rapid growth of its volume in all fields of activity, as well as their rapid wear out, the new life rhythm, soliciting man in a more intense measure from social, cultural and professional points of view, the strain imposed by various mass media – press, radio, TV, internet — determine obvious changes in the atitude towards learning generally speaking and mostly towards school learning. The problem that rises in this context is: The reasons for which a student makes cognitive efforts to acquire new knowledge are the result of more conjugated factors, starting from his capacity to learn to the general mobilisation towards this activity.

Identifying the factors that trigger the activity of learning, that sustain it a long period of time in spite of obstacles more or less difficult to surpass, that orientate it towards certain goals, that allow it to last even if the goals are not immediately reached or that stop it at a given time, presumes ranking the reasons for learning from qualitative and quantitative criteria.

Being motivated for school learning expresses, on a behavioural level, a dynamic, mobilising state, directed towards reaching certain goals, which is defined by statements like interested in …will to learn …impulse towards …. The student is involved in learning tasks, is oriented towards finalities, most of them consciously. Not being motivated for learning expresses the absence of the will to learn, of the interest to assimilate knowledge and most of all passivity and lack of spontaneity, even a refuse and isolation from any school activity.

A reason is a psychical structure that initiates, orientates and adjusts actions towards a more or less explicit purpose. The motivation for learning is made of all the reasons that, in their capacity of internal conditions of the personality, determine, orientate, organise and augment the intensity of the learning efforts.

Ausubel Learning in School considers that in the structure of school motivation we may identify three basic components 3. It is accompanied Ausubel by anxiety, fear resulting from psychical anticipation of losing prestige and self-respect as a consequence of failure. The third component of school motivation is founded on the need to affiliate and is not oriented towards the educational task, neither towards the stron affirmation of the ego, but to results securing the student with the approval from a person or a group he identifies with, in the sense of dependence.

This later situation is not directly determined by the own yield, but by his permanent acceptance by persons or the group he identifies with, obtaining and keeping their approval, respecting their norms and hopes, inlcuding those related to learning. Generally speaking, the wish to affiliate is stronger in childhood, when children insistently look for it and benefit from a situation based on identifying with their parents, which is a state of dependence on and acceptance.

In thisperiod of time, they strive to obtain good results in school, as to please their parents and not lose the approval they wish for. Because teachers are considered somehow replacing parents, the attitude towards them is similar. During puberty and pre-adolescence, the affiliating impulse decreases in intensity and, at the same time, is reoriented from parents to colleagues of the same age.

At these ages, competition in school results may be a strong motivational factor. The need for approval from peers can yet reduce school yield, if such achievements are negatively appreciated by colleagues. Still, generally speaking, during adolescence the impulse of the strong ego affirmation is the dominant component of the school motivation, as well as during the active period of time of the individual, maintaining high levels of aspiration.

Yet pedagogical observation shows that an excess of such motivation may lead to unpleasant consequences: The sphere of the learning behaviour patterns is plurimotivated and shows the motivational mechanism of learning.

A superior form of the motivation for school learning is the intrinsic motivation 1consisting of those reasons that do not depend on a reward coming from outside the learning activity the student learns because learning brings him satisfaction by itself, and the purpose of learning in intrinsic to it, not out of it.

The intrinsic motivated learning is manifested by a special interest shown towards school learning, prolonging even during his spare time lecture, solving problems etc. Such a learning is much more efficient, because, even if it puts more strai non the student, delays tiredness thanks to the satisfaction it brings and allows the learner to perfom a longer lasting activity and get higher yield.


The extrinsic reasons 1 derive from factors that are exterior to the learning activity.

Bibliography – Annales universitatis apulensis

The wish to affiliate is an obvious extrinsic reason when the child goes to school and learns thoroughly, mostly to please his family, who is interested in what he does in school, praises and pedaggoie rewards him. We may include in the same category reasons determined by the desire to lease educators they get attached to and unconditionally admire which is specific to young studentsas well as the desire to get together with colleagues, friends, to generally do everything that their peers do.

Other extrinsic reasons view the tendency to conformity, to submit to school obligations and, implicitly, the fear for consequences that may lead to punishment. Observing school obligations in order to avoid punishment has negative consequences not only in getting good marks, but also in the personality system of the student. If achieved, learning is with hard efforts and tiresome.

The wish to be among the first, pedavogie gain constantim with all costs can be a stimulus for learning just in elementary school.

In the absence of this desire, school grades decrease rapidly. The exageration of this reason mat lead to negative feelings of competition, ostility towards colleagues and even teachers and has negative consequences in the relationships.

Another category of reasons for learning, whose functionality is conditioned by the age of the students, of the structure and particularities of their personality, of the socio-affective relationship among class are the stimulative reasons — praise, encouragement, objective assessment, respect of opinion etc.

They may be general social reasons – the tendency to accumulate knowledge to be place dat the same level with the others — special social reasons, manifested by the interest to get a certain favourable social position, to earn prestige as well as reasons for collaborating, of reciprocity. In the sphere of affective reason s 2 are included the predominantly emotional ones, both positive and negative — love and respect of parents, the feeling of duty towards them, the wish the bring them joy, sympathy towards teachers, respect for them, fear from parental punishment, anxiety determined by the rigid attitude of some teachers, regret or shame towards teachers, parents or colleagues.

Professional reasons 3 are centered around the aspirations of the students towards professional accomplishment: I learn to become someone, because school prepares you for the chosen profession etc.

The reasons included cucs the category of school success-failure 5 are grouped around the will to pedagogei or to avoid failure. The same directions are shaped in what concerns avoiding failure; as a consequence, in the category of school success-failure we may include the reasons stated by students in very different ways, yet expressing the same tendencies: The success or failure recorded in different phases of learning may mobilise or de-mobilise a student along fulfilling a certain task.

Cicos encourages, increases the efficiency of the activity and diminishes the effects of tiredness, opposite to failure, that may have contrary effects. The student succeeding in not so easy a task feels satisfied by his work, by the effort that he made to learn; the feeling of success may pefagogie a previous failure or may contribute to even removing the inferiority feeling; self-trust will grow, and the interest towards learning in the given field will increase.

Conversely, failure, mostly when associated with pedagogke and parental criticism may generate a negative school motivation. Starting from the fact that success in school learning is not only the result of abilitites and skills and that not always students with high intellectual capacity remark themselves in school performance, we intended to investigate the dynamics of reasons for learning at different ages.

The ascertaining researsch starts from the hypothesis that ranking the reasons for learning is different along school years. Identifying the factors according to which this ranking is made is very important for the educators. As to achieve a ranking of the reasons for learning in students cucoz have achieved — according to different levels of age — two categories of tests: Both the interview and the questionnaire have followed identifying the dimensions of school learning motivation and of the factors mediating the option for such reasons choice answer items pedagohie I like going to school because: I am with my colleagues, to get marks, to have a diploma, to write and read etc.

The responses analysis ccuos interpretation has been made taking into consideration the following types of motivation for learning: At a global analysis of the answers we have identified the interest manifested by students for school activities generally speaking and by school learning especially: As to identify the dynamics of the interest in school ccos, we have performed a comparative analysis of answers, according to age. Starting with the age of 14, statistics change; most of the students learn out of obligation, for fear of sanctions from school or parents and others come to constsntin, try to learn, but without any special interest.

The students stating that they do not know what to answer are pedagogje the final high-school classes we may explain it by the specific negativism of the age, but also because a demotivation towards school or any other kind of activity.


Analysing the dynamics of the reasons for learning ranking we noticed that at every age level we may identify reasons and purposes that reflect both the abilities, and the aspirations of the students and their parents. Most of the students, irrespective of age, show an extrinsic motivation for cucoos, reflected in very well defined pragmoatic purposes obtaining a diploma, material advantages from their parents, good grades, prises etc. The pleasure to learn, the curiosity offered by various school subjects, the ineterst for knowledged gained by learning rank in the last places of the reasons for learning.

We found interesting the statements of the years old students, that are cognitively motivated the most, comparing to older students.

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The first place in boys is occupied cognitive reasons that appear as early as 12 years old and by professional reasons. Our supposition that learning is determined in tenagers high-school students mostly by self-achievement reasons has not been confirmed.

The role of motivation in school learning is extremely complex. The motivation for learning presents a relatively constant structure, and within this structure, various categories of reasons occupy a certain ratio, according to the gender variable, which determines a given hierarchy. We suppose there is a relation between the in situ approach of the problematic related to the learning of professional behaviors of the didactic profession and the perceptions of the main actors involved in this process mentors and practicing students.

For verifying the research hypothesis, the significance of the difference between the means obtained by mentors and practicing students respectively, the subjects who answered the applied questionnaires was established by calculating the value of the signification test test t, Student. The results obtained by the group subject to investigation are summarized in table 1.

Further to the application of the questionnaires presented under Used instruments chapter, a series of data was obtained, which were processed through the SPSS software, version 10 for Windows.

Through the verification of work hypotheses 2. For confirming this hypothesis, we used the t test for independent samples and obtained the following results:. As to the general value of the perceptions on the mentoring activity, the first table Group Statistics offers the descriptive statistics of the two groups; thus, a mean M of Mass-media, socio-economical and cultural environment propose attitudes incompatible with a classical educational program.

Responsible with education are experts, teachers but the informal education has essential effects with regard to inclusion of undesirable elements in the educational ideal. A coherent educational project can not be implemented without taken into consideration influences from other institutions. It is impossible for an outlook to change without educating all the public institutions responsible for informal education.

Pedagogues accept that educational influence and intervention manifest itself in three states: Researches believe the hard core in education belongs to the formal education.

Unfortunately informal influences family, peers, society, and media have a stronger influence over behavior. Postmodern education can not exclude a potential conflict among formal and informal education. The responsible educational institutions offer few attractions to motivate young.

The rigorous program, the bureaucratic administration of schools, subjectivity in assessment, descriptive learning programs, the discrepancy between school and social environment are just few elements that does not encourage trusting educational institutions.

The society is different from school and it offers a different educational perspective. School prepares students for an ideal social environment different from the one students find outside school. The street is dynamic, alive and colored. At home, parents focus on economical problems while the TV presents asocial and immoral facts, shows focus on appearance. Internet is an alternative educational resource.

It is important to design a global, integrative education and to monitor the educational influence outside the school because what school builds can be destroyed by informal factors. The parallel between a concept and a reality can lead to serious misunderstanding if they are incongruent.

The learning systems are very rigorous organized and conservatoire. The postmodern mentality breaks the patterns and brings incertitude. In conclusion, two opposite situations coexists.

Annales universitatis apulensis

Postmodernism is characterized through loosing bench-marks. The contemporaneous world has few moments of stability. Not just the future is under the threat of shock Toffler, but also the present, and maybe even the past. In the past, communities cultivated their own traditions. Today their identities embed. In an educated and educable world, deconstruction can not be considered a week point. The need to readjust to frequent changes in science and society involves rethinking, reconsidering, and reevaluating the reality.

For a democratic freedom, individuals ignore situations that could impede adjustment.