Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World Screw-worm fly, is distributed in sub- Saharan Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, SE Asia and New. Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve. (Figures and ). ETYMOLOGY:Chryso = gold + myia = fly; along with bezziana for Dr. Bezzi. Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infestation: case report of three dogs in Malaysia treated with spinosad/milbemycin. Hock Siew.

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Larvae feeding on the skin and underlying tissues of the host cause wound or traumatic myiasis, which can be fatal.

Infestations are generally acquired bezziaa sites of wounding, but they may also occur in the mucous membranes of body orifices. At present, the only means for control of C. The most likely route for an incursion of Chrysomya bezziana to a new location is via an infested host animal, be it livestock chryso,ya human.

To prevent the spread of the pest to new geographical regions, C. Australia maintains an official state of awareness and preparedness with respect to a potential C. All warm-blooded terrestrial animals are susceptible to Chrysomya bezzianaincluding bezzian, birds, wildlife and livestock.

Pre-disposing factors include wounds such as cuts and scratches, while the umbilical of the new-born, the vulva of post-parturition females, scrotum of post-castration or de-horned and branded cattle are especially vulnerable.

Cutaneous Myiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana Larvae, Mexico

Where exotic animals are maintained in a C. For example, at the Zoo Negara in Malaysia, kangaroos, wallabies and polar bears have been recorded as hosts Spradbery and Vanniasingham, The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.

When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.

Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Within hours of hatching from the eggs, first-instar larvae establish cavities in the subcutaneous tissue and these are enlarged by the action of the larval mouth hooks as they grow and migrate deeper into the muscle tissue. Clinically, irritation and pyrexia occur. By day 7, when the larvae are mature, progressive necrosis and liquefaction nezziana tissues chrysomyz in deep wounds with frayed necrotic edges.

Histologically, necrosis is accompanied by intense neutrophil infiltration and haemorrhage. Haematological and biochemical changes also occur, notably neutrophilia and anaemia, and a decrease in serum protein with an increase in serum globulins.

Chrysomya bezziana – WikiVet English

Significant weight loss occurs in infested animals. The pathology of C. Signs of infestation include a ragged lesion containing larvae of Chrysomya bezzianapersistent licking of the lesion by the host, an initial hypersensitivity after which sensitivity decreases.

Restlessness, lethargy, inappetence with a decrease in growth rate, anaemia and hypoproteinaemia, and intermittent irritation and pyrexia characterize the condition. The chrysomyaa can extend into the bezzziana cavities causing peritonitis, sinusitis and pleuritis depending on the site of infestation.


There is a foul-smelling and characteristically pungent odour bezziaa with C. Early larval invasion of the damaged epidermis by newly-hatched larvae create small cavities mm in diameter with the larvae bathed in a serous fluid and visibly active. Within 24 hours the cavities are enlarged and extend into the subcutaneous tissue and muscles.

Progressive liquifactive necrosis of the tissues continues as the larvae grow and the lesion becomes cavernous with ragged edges. In the depths of the lesion are a seething, pulsating mass of larvae covered in liquefied tissue chryxomya blood. Myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana must be distinguished from myiases due to other species of carrion blowflies Calliphorinae.

In the sheep blowflies, Lucilia cuprina and L. Any lesions, especially following invasive husbandry bezziaha as castration or de-horning, should be explored with a view to the possibility of C. Diagnosis of a screw-worm fly infestation is normally made after detecting larvae and collecting specimens for storage in 80 per cent ethanol for microscopic examination in the laboratory Spradbery, a.

Histologically, two phases are evident: Biochemical changes include initial neutrophilia, anaemia and decreased chrysoya protein with progressive increase in serum globulins Humphrey et al. Specimens of first to third instar larvae and including pupae and adults from infested wounds can be readily diagnosed by reference to Spradbery a and first-instar larvae by Szpila et al.

A technique for identifying geographical races of C. Up to mean eggs are laid in a compact mass from which first-instar larvae emerge and begin feeding on the superficial wound fluids before beginning to excavate the flesh by tearing the capillaries with their mouth hooks Spradbery, a.

Within 24 hours, cavities appear which extend deeply into the subcutaneous tissues. A progressive necrosis of skin and muscle continues as the larvae pass through two instar changes and in the final, third instar most larval growth takes place Humphrey et al. Lesions emit a characteristic pungent, sickly odour which also attracts other C. After days feeding, the larvae migrate from the lesion and, primarily overnight, evacuate the host wound and begin to burrow into the substrate where they pupariate Spradbery, Emergence of adults is temperature dependent and takes place after 7 days or more.

Females normally mate only once. In Zimbabwe Rhodesia Chrysomya bezziana is, with the exception of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitansthe most important insect pest of cattle, horses, dogs and other domestic animals Chrysomyx, When the tick control programme broke down during the guerilla war in Rhodesia, more thanlivestock were lost, the majority due to C.

The cost of a C. The social impact of livestock production losses is matched by the misery of human infestations caused by C. The adverse impacts on wildlife would also be considerable. At present, the only means for control of Chrysomya bezziana infestations of livestock are regular inspections and treatment of infested stock using a variety of insecticides. Wardhaugh and Mahon reviewed the use of insecticides as an integral part of the deployment of the sterile insect release method SIRM for control and eradication of C.


The range of potential treatment chemicals has been reviewed by James et al. A potential vaccine for C. Livestock movement controls should reduce the rate of spread of a C. An effective bait-trapping procedure for surveillance has been developed to capture adults of C.

Old World Screw-worm fly, C. Australia is free of screw-worm fly but with a climate suitable for C.

The risks of a C. Notes on Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve Diptera: Calliphoridaefirst recorded from Iraq.

Chrysomya bezziana

Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum, 8: Iraqi Journal of Agriculture, 4: Animal Health Australia, Screw-worm fly Version 3. Primary Industries Ministerial Council, 60 pp. Nasal myiasis due to Bezzi’s blowfly screw worm: Saudi Medical Journal, 3 4: Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve-some observations on its occurrence and activity in the Eastern Cape Province. South African Veterinary Medical Association, The screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana: Animal production and health in the tropics.

Old World Screw-worm Fly: Risk of Entry into Australia and Surveillance Requirements.

Bezziaan for Animal Health Australia. Animal Health Australia, pp. Proceedings and Transactions of the Rhodesia Scientific Association, How chryzomya eradication will affect wildlife. Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, occurs as two geographical races. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 15 4: Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Diptera: Acta Tropica, Suppl.

Genetic diversity of populations of Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, causing traumatic myiasis of livestock in the Gulf region and implications for control by sterile insect technique.

Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23 s1: Experimental Parasitology, 49 3: The Flies that cause Myiasis in Man. United States Department of Agriculture, Chemical containment and eradication of screw-worm incursions in Australia. Report to Meat and Livestock Australia. Meat and Livestock Australia, 37 pp. Chemicals for control of the Old World screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana in Australia. Report to Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry.

Chrysomya bezziana infestation

Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry, 40 pp. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 24 3: Introduction of Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve Dipt.

The Malaysian project – entomological report. Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry – Australia, A case of oral myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 9: Notes on the screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana Diptera: Calliphoridae as a pest of cattle in Papua New Guinea.