The mass transfer of arecoline using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) from areca nut is studied by analyzing the diffu- sion coefficient derived from Crank. of methanolic extracts from whole areca nuts and TLC for the qualitative identification of arecoline present in the extract. The second session. Arecoline is an agonist of acetylcholine muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors, Areca nut extract or the synthetic compound arecoline hydrobromide has been.

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Sciencemadness Discussion Board – Arecoline extraction – Powered by XMB

Log In Sign Up. April 28, ; Accepted: Comparisons of the SC-CO2 extracton yield under various condi- tions showed that the combination of pressure at From the diffusion coefficient analysis, the optimum conditions also gave the highest coefficients.

It was found that the yield arecolinr directly proportional to the values of the coefficients. It is also inexpensive, nontoxic, nonflammable and readily available in high purity 4,5. Supercritical Fluid Extraction SFE is a highly suit- Carbon dioxide meets most of the criteria outlined able technique to extract bioproducts from their natural above.

However, it is not a particularly powerful solvent matrices. Carbon dioxide is the most common solvent for materials of low volatility when compared arecloine the used in SFE and possesses several advantages compared common organic liquid solvents.

Carbon dioxide can be to other solvents. SFE is a unit operation that exploits arecopine a relatively selective solvent. The selective extraction of unique properties of solvents above their critical values low-to-medium volatility materials becomes possible by to extract soluble components from a mixture.

The appli- subsequent manipulation of the operating conditions. Areca nuts are usually used in betel chewing One reason for the interest in the technique is that common among the Indians. In India and China, areca nut SFE offers the potential advantages of higher yields and has been used as an extractiin in man and animals for better quality product especially in pharmaceutical, a long time. Taken with the juice from betel leaves, areca chemical and biotechnological processes.

The supercrit- nut has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. Many Asians use this tonic agent to protect tions which have a moderate arecokine pressure to minimize against the ill-effect of their food. In traditional Indian medicine, the unripe fruit Tel: Dried areca nuts are claimed to sweeten COOCH3 the breath, strengthen the gums, remove bad taste and arrecoline a stimulant and exhilarant effect on the system to improve appetite and taste.

The Chinese employed areca nuts in constipation and serious swelling. The use N of areca nuts was recommended in calculus and urinary disorders and as an aphrodisiac in the form of a decoction with other aromatic and stimulant substances. When the CH 3 nut is burnt and powdered, it was used as a dentifrice 6. As early ofit was discovered that the active prin- Figure 1. Chemical structure of arecoline. The structure of four alkaloids has been completely elucidated, but structure of arecolidine and the homoge- Wet Gas Meter neity of isoguvacine are uncertain.

Extractor Arecoline, C8H13O2N, colorless oil with a strongly alkaline reaction, volatile in steam and forms well- Chiller defined salts, is the major alkaloid component in areca Analyte nut.


The chemical structure of arecoline is shown in Receiver Figure 1. This characteristic is the basis of the CO2 cylinder Pump possibility that this alkaloid might have carcinogenic Figure 2. Schematic diagram of supercritical f luid extraction of properties 7 Arecoline is a cholinomimetic agent which arecoline. Typical parasympathomimetic effects observed after adminis- tration of arecoline are excessive salivation, stimulating cooled, compressed and pumped into the system by a of peristalsis and an increased tone and also rhythmicity high pressure pump.

The temperature was controlled at of small and large intestines, as well as tremor. Pressure in the the plasma blood sugar concentration. The aim of this cell varied from Six different combinations of temperature with Crank equation. The gas flow rate was measured by a dry gas Six areca nuts were used to determine the most meter. The areca nuts were dehu- III.

Quantitative and Mass Transfer Analysis of Arecoline sked and the kernels were weighed and soaked in water for 24 hrs to facilitate the extraction of arecoline. After Arecoline was analyzed using Hewlett Packard gas soaking, the kernels were weighed again.

Ten grams of chromatograph with a flamenionization detector Hewlett areca nuts were put into an extraction vessel together Packard, USA. A standard calibration curve for areco- with the water used for soaking to ensure all traces of line was first prepared.

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Pure arecoline of known concen- arecoline was exttraction transferred. Extraction of Arecoline using SC-CO2 n-caprylate was mixed with a series of concentrations of arecoline which ranged from 0. Commercial liquefied CO2 purity, CO2 passed through a silica gel column was mined.

These pres- standard area arec. At a constant pressure of The increase in the diffusivity could areca nuts to be spheres with mean radius of 1.

Similar trend in that remains in the matrix sphere after extraction for the retrograderbehavior was also observed by Saldana time, t; mo is the initial etxraction of extractable material; n is et al. The CO2 density increased with tempera- rial in the sphere arecoline in this case. This equation ture and thus lowered its diffusivity.

In addition, higher was solved using a Turbo Pascal program to get the D density of CO2 might also result in the channeling effect value. From the data obtained, graphs of Log [Arecoline] where the solvent is pushed through the sample matrix vs. The without actually diffusing through the sample pores. This was in contrast to the caffeine extraction find- ings by Saldana et al.

Extraction at Constant Pressure of yield increased with temperature at higher pressure. Specifically, the increase in vapor pressure of caffeine Three different pressures were tested for the extrac- due to the increase in temperature compensated the tion procedure: B Log D vs.

Extraction at Constant Temperature the highest yield was obtained at A Log [Arecoline] vs. A Cumulative Log [Arecoline] vs. D value was highest at The change of pressure also resulted in no highest. Subsequently, the D value The pres- at Compaction of the sample CO2 movement in and out of the areca matrix will inadvertently reduce the effi- 3 ciency to extract the arecoline from the areca matrices.


Both temperature and pressure appeared 0 to influence yield, with higher temperature requiring lower pressure. On the other hand, similar yield could be achieved at higher temperature and lower pres- sure. Theoretically, each compound possesses different optimum extractability conditions under the supercritical fluid temperature, pressure and time factors At higher pressure of A: However, at lower Figure 8. Amount of arecoline extracted for 24 hours for each pressure of The Overall Evaluation of the Extraction pressure of the solute in the sample.

As for the extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernels using pressure swing From the graphs obtained, we can see certain technique, Zaidul et al. Figures 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A and 7A higher pressure could be attributed to the disruption of the show the correlation between the yield and time whereas oil glands. Chen and Ling 14 stated that the selection of Figures 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B and 7B exhibit the changes in the modifier co-solvent is a critical factor to be considered. D values with time.

Most of the graphs of Log [Areco- line] vs. According to McHugh and Krukonis 10 there are three distinct extrac- This study focused on the optimum yield of areco- tion regions which are solubility dependent, interme- line from areca nut using supercritical carbon dioxide diate and diffusion controlled regions.

The first region in SC-CO2. In this study, there was no direct effect of the Figure 7A shows thermodynamic solubility as observed temperature on the yield and the D value at each pressure in the first 2 to 3 hours of extraction at Efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction was Afterwards, the extraction was more influenced by specific combination of temperature and dependent on arecoline diffusion through the areca pressure.

In Log D vs. It shows that the diffusivity of at The extractions and analyses of arecoline from the areca nuts increased at the initial stage arecoline showed that solubility and diffusivity of areco- of the extraction, reached a maximum value and reduced line in supercritical carbon dioxide are affected by both diffusivity until the end of extraction.

The reduction in temperature and pressure. Changes in the temperature the D value corresponded to the reduction of the amount and pressure have effects on the yield and value of the available to be extracted after the maximum amount was diffusivity coefficients.

Analyses also show that the attained. Thus, this condition could be regarded as the 7. Mercapturic acid most efficient condition for the extraction of arecoline formation during the metabolism of arecoline in the from areca nut using Arecopine. The Mathematics of Diffusion 2nd ed.

Decaffeination of guarana seeds Extraction kinetics of pre-pelletized jalapeno in a microextraction column using water saturated peppers with supercritical CO2. Supercritical enhancement carbon dioxide using pressure swing technique. Comparison of super- 4. Oil Fundamental principles and modeling methods. An overview of 6.